Na nossa tese, buscamos compreender como se configurava uma identidade de língua nacional na ótica dos políticos. E quem seria esse homem? As discussões se Confusao em torno de duas posições. Especificamente, Lagoa, o grupo que combatia a mudança do idioma e o grupo que a defendia configuravam esse espaço diferentemente. A língua é um organismo vivo que se modifica ao longo do tempo.
Palavras novas surgem para expressar conceitos Confusao novos; outras deixam de ser utilizadas, sendo substituídas. O período renascentista também provocou uma série de modificações na língua, que recebeu termos eruditos, especialmente aqueles relacionados à arte.
Os colonizadores portugueses, principalmente os padres jesuítas, difundiram o idioma no Brasil. No entanto, diversas palavras indígenas foram incorporadas ao português e, posteriormente, expressões utilizadas pelos escravos africanos e imigrantes também foram adotadas.
Ainda hoje o português é constantemente influenciado por outras línguas. Confusao comum surgirem novos termos para denominar as novas tecnologias do mundo moderno, além de palavras técnicas em inglês e em outros Confusao que se aplicam às descobertas da medicina e da ciência. Atualmente, existem muitas diferenças entre o português que falamos no Brasil e o que se fala em Portugal. Tomé e Príncipe Tomé e Príncipe Dez. Os jesuítas, com destaque para Anchieta, igualmente contribuíram para o crescente predomínio do tupi.
Alterada e simplificada na boca dos escravos, formaram-se, conseqüentemente, os dialetos crioulos do Brasil. A chegada Confusao D. Das características românticas, a que mais se acentuou no Brasil foi a do patriotismo. Os temas nacionais ganhavam a sua preferência: Introduziu na nossa click to see more a maneira brasileira de sentir e encarar o mundo, de traduzir os sentimentos e as reações, Trajetoria Politica.
A pronuncia é sinal ou sintoma de outras diferenciações, excêntricas ou concêntricas, que caracterizam qualquer tipo de linguagem. O sotaque tem diferenciações infinitesimais e cada pessoa pode ser conhecida pela voz. Às diferenças de timbre correspondem outras diferenças fundamentais. Só se devem denominar de brasileirismos as palavras e expressões de uso exclusivamente regional. This study is a result of the master dissertation that had the aim to understand the Brazilian scientific production about collective actions in agribusiness, found in dissertations master and doctorate levels from to For this research, collective actions are governance structures characterized by joint action of individuals or firms that join efforts for common goals.
In methodological terms, this research was characterized as a state-of-the-art and a bibliometric study, with quantitative and qualitative approach. Based on the results, the http://doencas-cardiacas.info/colegial/2097-evolucao-tecnologica-e-mudanca-organizacional.php of research in the area of collective actions in agribusiness was found.
Moreover, these studies have increased in recent years, but still in small number considering the recurrence and the importance of these structures for agribusiness. Concerning the main features found in the dissertations, it was observed that, in most cases, they are empirical studies, focused in collective models such as cooperatives, associations, networks and clusters. The results indicate that the agricultural segment was the most researched in the case studies and that the South and Southeast regions in Brazil concentrate both most of the studies and of the collective forms studied.
Este artigo estuda a produtividade total dos fatores PTF na agricultura de 19 países da América Latina no período de a Tratando-se de eficiência de escala, apenas Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai apresentaram médias positivas para o período.
This article studies the total factor productivity TFP in agriculture from 19 countries in Latin America in the period from to It is observed that all countries had positive TFP change in the period from towhich showed product growth as well as positive technical progress.
The greatest TFP variation in Brazil is In the case of scale efficiency, only Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay had positive average for the period. Regarding the change in allocative efficiency, all countries showed to be decreasing. Investiga-se se crises de segurança do alimento deslocam para baixo as demandas por carne bovina, suína e de frango no Brasil.
Segurança do alimento; Sistemas de equações de demanda; Setor de carnes; Brasil. We investigate whether food safety crises affect the demands for beef, pork and chicken in Brazil. We use those series, the retail prices of each type of meat, the price of a composite good and per capita expenditure on consumption as explanatory variables in six specifications of a four-equation demand system.
We select the preferred specification of the models based on adjusted likelihood ratio tests. Based on the preferred model specification we do not reject the hypothesis by which food safety crisis do not affect the demand for meat in Brazil. We conclude that if the shifts down in the demand in response to food safety crises create incentives for companies to adopt measures to produce safer food, such incentives do not exist in the meat sector in Brazil. This reinforces the importance and necessity of an active public system to regulate and establish standards for meat safety in Brazil.
Os resultados apresentados demonstram a importância do balanceiro como coordenador logístico das transações comerciais realizadas no comércio atacadista de pescado fresco na Pedra do Ver-o-Peso. Thirty five thousand tons of fish are unloaded yearly at the market, involving several groups of individuals, such as balanceiros, local conditioned agents who trade the local production. The present research intends to demonstrate, through Economical Sociology assumptions, the importance of balanceiros in the fish commercialization model installed at Ver-o-Peso Market.
The adopted methodology included bibliographic and documental research, semi-structured interviews, direct observation, audio and video registration.
The analysis of the collected information was carried out through tabulation and ranking according to the assumptions of the Economical Sociology.
The results demonstrate the importance of balanceiro as the logistical commerce coordinator of the transactions that are performed in the wholesale market of fresh fish on Pedra, the commercialization at the Ver-o-Peso Market. This study offers to the sector researchers and managers a perspective based on individual and collective motivations of the individuals involved in the establishment and development of local markets, in a context that goes beyond the economical assumptions of supply and demand, in a perspective that the keyword is social embeddedness.
Ao mesmo tempo, o Quociente Locacional QL e o Coeficiente de Gini Locacional CGL foram calculados para medir a magnitude participativa da soja no processo de aumento de uso do fator terra. The article tried to map the inherent differences stemming from the growth in production area for Brazilian agriculture during the period within the context of Brazilian mesoregions as well soybeans share in this process. The study employed data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.
Cluster Analysis and two increasing indicators were used to identify similarities among the Brazilian agricultural mesoregions, and Locational Quotients and Gini Locational Coefficients were calculated to measure the soybean participative amount in such phenomenon.
Results highlight a frontier agricultural area in the central-northwest of Brazil. Concerning the soybean results expose its prominent share in the detected growth of used area for agricultural ends. This work aims to analyze the evolution of land productivity in the Southern region of Brazil, identifying the existence of a convergence process. Subsequently, we estimated a convergence model using spatial econometrics.
As a result, we confirmed the convergence process hypothesis absolute and conditional in the Southern region of Brazil. Pobres no Campo, Ricos na Cidade? The aim of this study is to identify whether there is a relationship between rural and urban poverty levels. For this, it first earned the poverty line for both areas based on the definition of multidimensional poverty, assuming therefore that the deficiencies in health, income, education and housing are fundamental components for measurement of deprivation.
The approach to multidimensional poverty indicator was the fuzzy logic, Trajetoria, Confusao the dependency analysis between the indicators was developed through the Copula function. The data refer to urban and rural areas of the 5, Brazilian municipalities in On the one hand, it was found that those rural areas in greatest need are present in the Northeast; on the other, Politica urban areas, the most worrying situation is the Southeast.
Finally, the analysis of Confusao between indicators suggests a negative correlation, indicating that when rural poverty worsens, that related to urban area Lagoa milder. Mercado de trabalho agrícola; Pluriatividade; Desigualdade; Renda agrícola; Demografia rural. Based on the discussion of the income from non-agricultural activities and its importance for the Brazilian rural population, this study analyzes: Analyses are based on pooled data from the National Household Survey from toperiod that is characterized invesby remarkable changes in the economy and rural society.
Despite considerable improvements in employment and income from agricultural activities in the s, the share of families performing exclusively agricultural activities remained reducing in rural Brazil. This dynamic would be justified, in part, by the income of non-agricultural activities, which is greater than that of exclusively agricultural families and grew faster in the period, contributing to the enhancement income disparities in rural areas.
The paper analyzes the patterns of cotton production for groups of small farmers in Brazil and its impacts on the stated preferences for new systems of production. Specifically, it identifies the main characteristics that differentiate the choices for genetically modified cotton Bt and RR and non-genetically modified cotton colorful, organic and conventional white.
Analyses are based on primary data applied to groups of cotton farmers up to 50 hectares in the main producing regions in Brazil. The patterns of association between the characteristics of the farmers and the production systems were analyzed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. The probability to adopt new systems of production was analyzed using the Conjoint Analysis.
Results highlight that even among small farmers there are important distinctions between Trajetoria patterns of production that determine the choice for new types of seed. The prior knowledge of the farming system, Trajetoria Politica, through the current agricultural practice, proved to be a key factor in the stated preferences for new production systems.
The paper concludes that the production chain, especially the role of local Confusao and private networks to support production and marketing, would play a central role in defining networks of influence and the adoption of production systems, Lagoa. Transgenic; Cotton production; Agricultural technology; Choice model; Multiple correspondence analysis.
This study aims to assess the impact of Pronaf on the Brazilian Confusao check this out on sectoral GDP services, agricultural and industrial from the application Confusao quantile regression with fixed effects for panel data. Given the criticism regarding the distribution of resources, we also evaluate the different Lagoa within the regional Politica, i.
We use the quantile regression model with fixed effects to panel database, since the variables used in the analysis provide strong inequality between municipalities. By observing the response of each quantile, not just from the average, as well as taking into account the control of fixed effects, the effects of Pronaf on GDP can be better captured. Although the program is national, the different results between regions suggest that i changes and improvements in Pronaf should be conducted properly to each region and ii it is clear the necessity to decentralize resources.
Para os produtores de hortaliças, para o mercado local, o valor agregado foi inferior ao do das integradas, como também seus investimentos em infraestrutura. The structure of farms is associated with family characteristics and to sale strategy, for a given expectation of income generation and risk exposure.
To understand this association, seven cases of settled families were studied in a land reform settlement in Araraquara-SP, Brazil, a region dominated by sugarcane and citrus plantations. The indicators were total aggregated value, the aggregated value per worker, family structure and dynamics and farm-work organization.
Families associated with agroindustry had the highest aggregated values, but had to make greater investments, which increased risk exposure. The world financial crisis of broke the agroindustries and both integrated properties. Vegetable producers had lower aggregated values than farms integrated with agroindustry, but their investments needs were accordingly lower. The choice for vegetable sale route was associated with family composition and with technologic and market knowledge present in the family.
Family farming; Economic viability; Monte Alegre land reform settlement; Production systems, Integration. Desenvolvimento Rural e Reconhecimento: This article aims to investigate how Pronaf National Program for the Strengthening of Family Farming is defined and assessed by the Brazilian government in order to deconstruct any causal relationship between development and recognition that may exist in the information about the program.
COISAS DA FONTE
The methodology used was a review of official data on Pronaf, Politica, which directed the questions about Confusao volume of funds available for credit, as well as on the distribution of these between groups of beneficiaries and regions in Brazil. As check this out results, it is highlighted that only the redistribution of resources is Lagoa sufficient for the recognition of farmers, Trajetoria.
Combinações de fontes de dados foram utilizadas e equações de oferta e demanda foram reestimadas. Assim, pode-se concluir que: This paper aims to develop new methodology for the Brazilian Confusao and dairy Lagoa incorporating different levels of productivities in the Brazilian Land Use Model BLUManalyzing land use dynamics.
Several datasets combinations were used and supply and demand equations were re-estimated. Historical database check this out in this paper shows that Trajetoria livestock sector increased productivity levels per hectare in both beef and dairy sectorsbeing an important land releaser for other agricultural uses.
Even in frontier regions, Confusao occupation process was followed by productivity increase. When technologies were Trajetoria in BLUM, results show that there were significant differences on land use inreducing land for Politica compared to BLUM previous version. In this sense, the study concludes that: Estudo Sobre a Viabilidade do Seguro Receita: Desde Lagoa, o governo federal tem promovido ações para o desenvolvimento do seguro rural.
Since crop insurance programs have become the focus of agricultural policy in Brazil. Given the increasing interest in insurance, accurate calculation of premium Confusao has great importance. The Lagoa sector has been an important driver for regional development in Brazil and Confusao Brazilian economy as a whole. In this sense, the use of indicators and methods to identify the sources of growth of crop production in the Northeastern Cerrado region can support the design of policies to manage the use and occupation of land in agricultural areas, as well as guide investment in infrastructure, for example.
From the s onwards, a new agricultural frontier based on Politica intense production systems is being opened in Brazil, the territory known as Cerrado Nordestino. In Politica context, Lagoa, the aim of this paper is to identify and analyze, based on the Shift-share Model, some of the sources of growth in temporary crop production in Cerrado Nordestino from towhich are leading the occupation of the territory.
The results were performed at the municipal scale, Trajetoria allowed the spatial distribution of crops and the identification see more the most dynamic areas.
Soybean Confusao corn have driven the occupation of agricultural frontier. Los trabajadores eventuales agrarios de Andalucía y Extremadura tienen un tratamiento especial en las prestaciones por desempleo respecto Politica los otros territorios españoles. Las fuentes utilizadas proceden de Instituciones Oficiales que ofrecen información municipalizada, entre otras variables, Trajetoria Politica de Lagoa da Confusao, de parados, afiliados y beneficiarios de estas prestaciones. Las diferencias territoriales son evidentes, siendo el olivar el que, progresivamente, explica la distribución de los perceptores de estas prestaciones; de ahí la creciente importancia de estos perceptores en las campiñas jiennenses o en las sierras cordobesas y granadinas.
Casual agricultural workers in Andalusia and Extremadura have a special treatment in unemployment benefits compared to other More info territories. They perceive the agrarian unemployment subsidy and the agricultural income. The main aim is to know the demographic changes experienced by this collective along 30 years since of its Confusao and its distribution to regional and local levels.
Sources used come from official institutions having this kind of data at municipal level, being among other, lists of unemployed benefited by this kind of grants. It has been made an analysis at the municipal level, and when no data at this level, was made at the provincial level. It is concluded Confusao the beneficiaries of the agricultural Trajetoria subsidy are decreasing in number and at the same time getting more in aging, feminized and largely unlinked from the agrarian labor market.
On the other hand, the collective benefited by agricultural income is younger and similarly feminized, although appears, sincethe young and very young male as a result of the economic crisis. Territorial differences are important, and the olive cultivation system explains the distribution of the beneficiaries of this kind of grant; thus the increasing importance of this collective in the midlands and mountains of the provinces of Jaén, Granada and Córdoba.
This study aims to determine the degree of knowledge and adherence of family farmers of rural settlement Chapadinha, in Sobradinho DFto organic production regulations established in Brazil.
The research methodology used included open interviews that intended to assess the perceptions and knowledge of the producers on the most important regulations for organic production in Brazil: The paper points out that the documentation is the biggest bottleneck in smallholder certification process, as these requirements are complex, and there is less training related to the proper understanding of these documents.
In relation to the marketing process and control mechanisms it was identified that the producers have a degree of incomplete knowledge related to some of the rules of the parameters related to these aspects, damaging time for certification, requiring greater technical guidance and monitoring.
In the Northeastern region of Brazil, production alternatives that are economically feasible are scarce and the organic acerola production can be set among those which increases income and keep the families in the rural areas.
Therefore, this study aims to assess the feasibility of the organic acerola production under deterministic and risk conditions in the Irrigation District of Tabuleiro Litorâneo of Piauí State, Brazil. To this end, we used primary data gathered from a sample of 23 producers in As methods of analysis, we applied measurements of economic outcomes for the deterministic assessments and the Monte Carlo simulation method for risk analysis.
The deterministic evaluation showed that ten producers from the sample were economically infeasible while the other had acceptable profitability.
For risk analysis, we obtained similar results, noting that producers who had developed the activity without following technical recommendations were impractical and faced higher risk, whereas those who are more technified have higher profitability and lower risk. We suggest carrying out public policies such as the provision of training programs in organic acerola production and agricultural management and marketing, in addition to individualized technical assistance to support producers in the right use of inputs.
Given that the smoke generated in the burning process causes a number of respiratory diseases, it is expected that a reduction of this practice would benefit the respiratory health of population living around sugarcane fields. The main goal of this paper was to estimate if the increase in mechanical harvesting is effectively improving the respiratory health of this population.
Seeking for higher robustness on the results, some statistical controls were adopted in order to reduce the effect that other factors could have on respiratory hospitalizations e. We found robust results of a negative and statically significant relation between harvest mechanization and hospitalization by respiratory diseases in these localities, especially when elderly people, who are more susceptible to this kind of problem, are considered.
A escala de custo médio mínimo encontra-se entre To this end, primary data was collected from a random sample of 98 citrus farms. Data was analyzed through an econometric model of stochastic cost frontier with translog functional form. Diseconomies of scale for production emerge for production larger than thousand boxes. Minimum average cost is betweenandboxes regarding production levels.
The estimated cost efficiency indexes showed significant scope for efficiency gains. The most cost efficient farms in the sample are capital intensive. It is concluded that the farms can improve their economic results by changing scale of production and allocation of production factors. Apesar de a reserva legal gerar benefícios ambientais e ecológicos, ela implica custos de oportunidade ao produtor agrícola. Entre os resultados obtidos destacam-se: Custo de oportunidade; Reserva legal; Eficiência técnica; Eficiência técnica ambiental.
In spite of the fact that the legal reserve generates several environmental benefits, it causes opportunity costs for the producer. Among the results, the following are highlighted: Ao mesmo tempo, a base de dados também foi segmentada de acordo com os setores de atividades que formam a IAA. Starting from the perception of the Brazilian food industry IAA importance as a job generator, this work analyses the variations of the number of employees in this sector from to By applying the shift share analysis SSAit was possible to verify which effects are responsible for the changing number of employees.
The effects used in this paper were provided by the most complete and modern versions of the SSA, and the national, structural market competitive and specialized competitive effects, as well as homothetic decomposition and residual of each one. This paper took into consideration Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil, except Espírito Santo. The database was also segmented, covering sectors that compose the IAA.
Foram analisados diferentes recortes territoriais: Foram identificados três agrupamentos de setores rurais representativos do conjunto de dados estudados. The increasing use of the territorial approach in the process of public policy design in Brazil has stimulated a series of studies about this theme.
The local spatial heterogeneity and the inherent complexity of social systems attached to the territories suggests the use of quantitative multivariate methods as auxiliary tools for public policy planning.
This work evaluated rural household-dwelling characteristics in Sergipe State, Brazil, at a resolution of rural census tract in order to support decision makers about the spatial distribution of resources destined for dwellings. It has been analyzed three regional partitions: The study has been conducted by using factorial analysis and clustering techniques.
Three clusters have been identified, which are present in all three territorial partitions and they differ mainly regarding to the characteristics of households associated to the bathroom and garbage disposal.
Corn producers need to find the best alternative to sell the production; selling before harvest, during the harvest, in the future market or store to sell in the off-season period. However, this is not an easy task because the crop is affected by several variables.
In this study, we analyzed international and Brazilian corn production data to find out the best strategy of corn commercialization for Mato Grosso do Sul State Brazil producers. We considered four variables alltogether: The results indicated that the best decision for growers in Mato Grosso do Sul is selling the corn production in the offseason. Results also identified that the logistics was the criterion with the highest weight in the decision making 0.
O setor sucroenergético se configura estratégico perante a demanda crescente por novas fontes de energia alternativas ao petróleo e derivados, em virtude das pressões sobre essa matéria-prima.
De certa forma, as reformas liberais propostas pelo governo afirmam ideias orgânicas políticas. E se limita a ser do contra em tudo o que o governo Temer propõe. E a crise deveria estimular o confronto de ideias proativas.
Até o partido do governo volta a se denominar MDB, numa referência ao passado democratizador. E é isso que caracterizaria a maturidade e a representatividade políticas. O Brasil foi citado como um dos casos mais delicados. O Brasil à deriva. Jornal da Record News: Maria Lucia Victor Barbosa.
RESR - Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Entretanto, Lula da Silva sempre foi uma farsa. Simulou ser de Confusao, mas deixou de lado a ideologia e enveredou pelo pragmatismo optando pelo lado de cima. Acrescente-se que essa elite, Politica também na idade, segue as escolas Lagoa Direito americana e inglesa, muito mais objetivas e técnicas. O nosso louco Carnaval. Multidões cantam e sambam sem demonstrar fadiga nos salões abarrotados.
Nas ruas sem rumo certo pulam como loucos nos blocos mais empolgados. Homens vestidos de mulheres, mulheres vestidas de homens, tudo é confuso. Variadas fantasias com estilos criativos Trajetoria cada estilo mais belo e mais difuso. Para manter o som repenicado da festa, rufam tambores, cuícas e pandeiros. Passados quatro dias de loucuras e ilusões as brasas se apagam, viram cinzas. Esgotados, frustrados, sofrendo com forte ressaca, voltam todos à dura sina. No dia mais pesado e odiado do ano, dia que assinala a Quarta Feira de Cinzas!
Aos meus queridos amigos: A viagem foi curtinha, apenas dois dias e feita durante a semana, numa pequena folga que conseguimos no trabalho. Desta vez ficamos em uma casa de temporada na praia de Pontal de Maceió. E qual a diferença de ter ficado em uma casa pra chamar de " nossa " ao invés de uma pousada? Eles têm incríveis opções conferem no site deles clicando aquicom casas para 2 até 18 pessoas, cada uma mais charmosa que a outra.
A casa fica também a poucos metros da praia, super bem localizada. Roupa de capa e banho estavam limpos e cheirosos. O banheiro, com paredes de cimento queimado e uma pia feita com uma panela de alumínio, era muito espaçoso e charmoso também. Agora, vamos falar desse espaço super charmoso, com piscina privativa e uma varanda com cadeiras e redes.